Also for those of you who cannot wait to find the conclusion (a little humor here) the answer is the summer of 1928. You can figure out the research question!
The Veneziano family grouping consists of a father “August” (perhaps Agostino or Augustus) who was probably born about 1884 in Calasibetta, Sicily, Italy and probably immigrated to the United States in 1904. [i]. A ship manifest records that he was going to see his brother-in-law who lived at 420 ½ Clark in Chicago. By 1908 August is found in St. Louis, MO living at 2005 Franklin.[ii]
The mother, Mary (perhaps Franciscana Mari) Branca was probably born in Buscante, Milano, Italy between 1880 and 1882. In the 1910 Federal census for St. Louis it is recorded that she immigrated in 1889.[iii] A possible record of this event could be found in the New York Passenger Lists.[iv]
She marries August on the 27th of April 1907 in St. Louis at St. Charles Borromeo Catholic Church.[v] The civil record of the event is filed with the Recorder of Deeds for the City of St. Louis.[vi]
In 1909 August and Mary are living at 901 Franklin [vii] where he is listed as a laborer as he was a year earlier. On the 7th of July 1909 a daughter is born, Josephine “June” Renee whose delayed birth certificate started this research.[viii] See separate blog entry for this document and discussion.
In the 16 April 1910 Federal census for St. Louis (see endnote 3) August appears as the 26 year old head of household who was born in Italy as were both his parents. He is listed as immigrating in 1906 and is still an alien. He is a laborer who does odd jobs and he is living at 901 B Franklin. In that same census Mary appears as the 30 year old wife of August and she has been married three years and has one living child. She was born in Italy as were both her parents. She is unable to read or write. Daughter “June” appears as Jose the 9/12 month old daughter of August and was born in Missouri.
In 1910-1913 August is listed as living at 901 Franklin as a laborer. [ix] (As written in another blog, his brother Vincenzo says on his ship’s manifest that he is going to St. Louis to this address to visit.) In 1914 August resides as 1615 N 13th.[x] At this point he seems to disappear from the St. Louis city directory. His name was not found in the 1915 nor 1916 Gould’s St. Louis City Directories. As written in another blog about Gloria Veneziano, it appears the family moves to Chicago about this time period.
(There is a World War I draft registration card from September 12, 1918 for a Carlo Augusto Veneziano of 514 So. Claremont St. in Chicago, Cook, IL whose birth date is recorded as August 9, 1882 making him 36 years old. He is from Italy and is working as an electrician at the Edison Appliance Co at 2214 Ogden Ave. in Chicago. He lists a Mrs. Mary Veneziano (wife) at 514 So. Claremont and signs the form as Carlo Augusto Veneziano. The signature appears to be written by a right handed person whereas the signature on the wedding application appears to be by a left handed person.) When I wrote this a decade ago I had not made some of the connections that are now found!
By 1920 the family (less August) is in Chicago, IL. However, perhaps due to World War I there does not seem to be city directories for Chicago that can be found for 1917-1919.
In the 13 Jan 1920 Federal census for Chicago, IL [xi](11) there appears a Mary Venezina who is the 38 year old head of household who was born in Italy as were both her parents. She is living at 1251 Oregon Avenue [which became Flournoy after 1920] and is employed as a finisher in a tailor house. [Family legend could be that she was employed by Carson Pierre Scott.] She is listed as a widow. She is able to speak English and is a naturalized citizen who immigrated in 1903. My guess is that June, a ten year old might have given this information to the enumerator.
Also appearing the in same family grouping are Josephine as the 10 year old daughter of Mary who attended school and is able to read and write. She was born in Missouri. Both her parents were born in Italy. Her sister Pauline Frances appears as Ida the 8 year old daughter (born about 2 April 1911) of Mary. Pauline attended school and was born in Missouri. Both her parents were born in Italy. Finally, Benjamin appears as the 6 year old son of Mary (born 24 May 1913 based on his delayed birth certificate) who was born in Missouri.[xii] He attended school. Both his parents were born in Italy.
As I started to track this family grouping through Chicago in the 1920’s I found them living at 1223 Macalister Place in 1923 under the listing for a Mrs. Mary Veneziano. [xiii] From 1928-1929 she is living at 4843 Palmer.[xiv]
On 28 Jan 1925, the Chicago School Board of Education [xv] lists Josephine Veneziano as completing a two-year vocational course in Stenography at McKinley High School located at 2040 W Adams Street.
On 28 Jan 1925, the Chicago School Board of Education [xvi] lists Ida P. Veneziano as graduating from the 8th grade at McLaren School.
On 27 Jun 1928, the Chicago School Board of Education [xvii] promotion list lists Ben J Veneziano as completing the eighth grade at Lloyd School located at 2103 N Lamon Avenue. He was educated at Lane Technical High School from 1928 to 1932 which is located at 2501 W. Addison Street. [xviii]. He graduated at Benjamin Vaillant. He was educated at the Armour Institute of Technology from 8 Feb 1932 to 11 Jun 1936 in Chicago and graduated at Benjamin Vaillant.
In the 2 April 1930 Federal census for Chicago [xix], Mary Vaillant appears as the 47 year old widow who was born in France as were both her parents. She is renting at $45 per month and has a radio. She has no occupation. She immigrated in 1905 and is a naturalized citizen who speaks English. She is living at 4843 Palmer.
In the same census June appears as June Vaillant the 20 year old daughter of Mary. She was born in Missouri and works in an office for a machinery company. Pauline appears as Pauline Vaillant the 19 year old daughter of Mary and is employed in office work at an electrical company. She was born in Missouri. Finally, Benjamin appears as Benjamin Vaillant the 16 year old son of Mary who was born in Missouri. He is attending school.
In the 1928-1929 Lakeside Annual Directory for the City of Chicago [xx] June is working as a stenographer with the J H Day & Co as June Vaillant AND she is listed with the same occupation as June Veneziano. Her residence at 4843 Palmer[xxi] lists her from 1928-1929 as both June Vaillant and June Veneziano. Subsequent listings [xxii] list her as Miss June Vaillant first at 4843 Palmer (1932), then at 4105 Fletcher (1933-1940).
In 1932, Miss Pauline Vaillant resides at 4843 Palmer [xxiii] and from 1933-1940 she is at 4105 Fletcher[xxiv] .
Benjamin Vaillant in 1937 is living at 4105 Fletcher [xxv].
My conclusion is that the oldest daughter sat her siblings and mother down at the kitchen table or maybe in the living room in the summer of 1928 and explained that being a young Italian woman in Chicago was not advantageous so that they would be using the Vaillant surname going forward. And they did!
[i] A “List or Manifest of Alien Passengers for the U. S. Immigration Officer at Port of Arrival” for the S. S. Marco Minghetti sailing from Palermo, 22 March 1904 arriving at Port of New York April 11th 1904 lists an Agostino Veneziano, age 20, male, single, who is a laborer, who is able to read and write. His nativity is Italy, his race or people are Italian South, his last residence is Caltanisetta and his destination is Chicago, Ill for which he has a ticket to get there which he paid. He has $12 and has not been to the United States. (Six other men all in their 20’s apparently have left the same Italian location and all are headed to Chicago, one of which has been to the United States previously.)
[ii] FHL Microfilm 1,605,973, Gould’s St. Louis Directory for 1908, page 1880.
[iii] The “Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910 Population” for the State of Missouri, St. Louis, Ward 5, enumerated on 16 April by Albert Horst, Enumeration District No. 84, Sheet No. 2A, line 14 lists Mary as a 30 year old wife of August who has been married 3 years and immigrated in 1889. August is listed as immigrating in 1906. Both dates could be two years in error?
[iv] At ancestry.com there is a listing for a M Branca who arrives 11 May 1887 as a 3 year old female from Genoa (Italy) on the ship Elysia. Needs more research.
[v] St. Charles Borromeo microfilm (FHL Film 1870931) viewed 18 May 2005.
[vi] Application No. 134097 for License to Marry was issued on 23 April 1907. It states” I, Augusto Venezian of 1532 Wash St and State of Mo desiring to procure a license to marry Miss Maria Branca of 934 N. 6th St and State of Mo do hereby solemnly swear that I am of the age of 24 tears; that I am single and unmarried, and may lawfully contract and be joined in marriage; and that I, Maria Branca, the person above named, do hereby solemnly swear that I am of the age of 27 years, and that I am single and unmarried, and may lawfully contract and be joined in marriage. The Marriage License was issued and returned certifying to a marriage by a Catholic Priest on the 27th day of April 1907, Father Caesar Spiganli (sp?) of 2901 Locust Street.
[vii] FHL Microfilm 1,605,973, Gould’s St. Louis Directory for 1909, page 2082.
[viii] Delayed or Special Certificate of Birth, No. 246584, State Board of Health of Missouri, Bureau of Vital Statistics, dated Feb 23, 1944. One record cited is the baptismal record from St. Charles Borromeo Church in St. Louis, MO.
[ix] FHL Microfilm 1,605,973, Gould’s St. Louis Directory for 1911, 1912 and 1913, pages 2071, 2032 and 2095 respectively.
[x] FHL Microfilm 1,605,973, Gould’s St. Louis Directory for 1914, page 2147
[xi] The “Fourteenth Census of the United States: 1920 Population” for the State of Illinois, Cook County, Ward 19th, enumerated on 13 January, Enumeration District 1070, Sheet Number 15, lines 47-50.
[xii] Delayed Standard Certificate of Live Birth, State of Missouri, Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, dated 22 July 1940 (which he states he observed is own birth as the Father!).
[xiii] The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago for 1923, page 2674.
[xiv] The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago for 1928 and 1929.
[xv] CPS Alumni (http://www.cpsalumni.org) website for the Chicago Public School’s alumni index listing of graduations. NOTE this site was assessed in 2005 and regrettably is no longer current. I did print the listings for my files!
[xvi]CPS Alumni (http://www.cpsalumni.org) website for the Chicago Public School’s alumni index listing of graduations.
[xvii] CPS Alumni (http://www.cpsalumni.org) website for the Chicago Public School’s alumni index listing of graduations.
[xviii] CPS Alumni (http://www.cpsalumni.org) website for the Chicago Public School’s alumni index listing of graduations.
[xix] The “Fifteenth Census of the United States 1930 Population Schedule” for the State of Illinois, Cook County, Ward 37, Precinct 4, Block 343, enumerated on 2 April, Enumeration District 16-1309, Sheet 1B, lines 54-57.
[xx] The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago for 1928-29, page 2674
[xxi] The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago for 1928-1929
[xxii] Illinois Bell Telephone Company Directory for 1932
[xxiii] Illinois Bell Telephone Company Directory for 1932
[xxiv] Illinois Bell Telephone Company Directory for 1933 to 1940
[xxv] Illinois Bell Telephone Company Directory for 1937